1) Both nations were divided into separate political entities - one communist, the other extreme right-wing regime.
2) Both were aided by the United States subsequent to Korean War
3) Both undergone a period of military dictatorship prior to their democratization process in the 1980s
4) Both had some form of democratic ideology prior to becoming a military dictatorship
A. The Nationalist Party (Taiwan) had the three People's Principles - nationalism (minzu), democracy (minquan) and social welfare (minsheng)
B. South Korea had elections after WWII before the military government launched a coup d'etat
The economic development of the two establishes the two nations potential to fulfill the Lipset Hypothesis of the Modernization Theory which dictates that an elevated of economic development is constituted of industrialization, urbanization and education and these are the preconditions for manifestation and continue of democracy.
To fulfill this process:
- Taiwan began its transformation from agricultural model to an industrial model in 1960 following the Statue for the Encouragement of Investment
- South Korea established the Economic Planning Board in 1961 nationalized the banks and other private enterprises for coordinated investments in particular developments
- Taiwan's urban population increased to 50% from WWII to 1985. They also benefitted from decentralized urbanization as the countryside also became industrialized and urbanized.
- South Korea's urbanization began at a similar time but progressed at a much faster rate and reached 50% urban by 1977. At its peak, Korea's capital Seoul contained up to 25% of the national population at its peak.
Taiwan's Urbanization Progress:
South Korea's Urbanization Progress:
- The differences in educational policy between Taiwan and South Korea are greater than in the other field.
- Taiwan had begun their universal secondary education since 1968 while Korea did not begin this since 1985 (before this time, parents sent their children to school voluntarily)
- Literacy rates of reached 80% by the 1980s in both nations
- University education became increasingly accessible by the early 1980s
With the three conditions in the Lipset Hypothesis fulfilled, DEMOCRACY WAS REACHED AT LAST! There was more violence in South Korea than Taiwan though.
- Taiwan's first opposition party was lifted in 1986
- Martial law (which had been in place since the Chinese Civil War) called the Period of Mobilization for the Suppression of Communist Rebellion was lifted in 1991
- Universal elections were held in 1992 but Lee Teng-Hui remained president
- South Korean Dictator General Park's assassination in 1979 and General Chun's coup prompted a democratic movement which was suppressed violently in 1980
- After Chun's 7 year term, he wanted his protegee Roh Tae-Woo to succeed him
- Demonstrators forced Chun to resign and hold universal elections which, ironically, Roh won
Yet, this does not mean democracy was reached. Democracies must include:
- a political system for selecting and superseding the government through free and fair elections
- active participation of citizens in both political and civic life
- an implementation of a rule of law where it and its procedures apply uniformly to all citizens and safeguard their human rights
- the government must be rational, responsible and peaceful
Taiwan fulfilled the requirements when the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) superseded the Nationalist Party (KMT) in 2000 and the KMT then regained power in 2008
South Korea fulfilled the requirements when the Democratic Liberal Party superseded the Democratic Justice Party in 1992. The DJP lost the next elections in 1997 to the a Millennium Democratic Party/New Congress for New Politics coalition